Severe arthritis of the ankle joint is the result of progressive wearing down of the articular cartilage cushion that lines the joint, ultimately creating bone-on-bone grinding. End-stage arthritis results in pain, combined with loss of function and mobility – severely limiting normal activity. When this end stage is reached and non-operative options (such as medication, injections, and bracing) have been exhausted, patients are presented with two methods of surgical treatment.


“End-Stage Arthritis of the Ankle”

In my nearly twenty-five years of orthopaedic practice, almost every patient referred to me with shoulder pain comes to my office with some form of fear about having a torn rotator cuff. Thankfully, not every aching shoulder is caused by a torn rotator cuff (RC), but it is common for the presence of a torn rotator cuff to cause pain.


““Doc, my Shoulder Hurts…is it my Rotator Cuff?””